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Building Muscle By Enhancing Muscle Protein Synthesis

For individuals trying to optimize muscle growth, protein intake is essential. But the body is limited by how much protein can synthesize to repair and grow muscles. Can knowing protein intake timing, amount, and how to best stimulate muscle growth help achieve better results?

Building Muscle By Enhancing Muscle Protein Synthesis

Muscle Protein Synthesis

Muscle protein synthesis is a physiological process of producing new muscle protein and is an important component of how the body maintains and builds muscle. Muscle growth is achieved with resistance training and protein intake. (Tanner Stokes, et al., 2018)

How Protein Synthesis Works

Protein is the building block of muscles, while protein synthesis is a natural metabolic process in which protein is produced to repair muscle damage caused by exercise. This happens from amino acids binding to skeletal muscle proteins, increasing muscle size. It counteracts muscle protein breakdown (MPB) due to protein loss during exercise. The breakdown of muscles is a necessary part of building muscle. When damaged, muscles will build back larger, so long as enough calories and protein are consumed to repair and grow the muscles. Muscle protein synthesis can be enhanced by increasing protein intake immediately following exercise. Learning to stimulate muscle protein synthesis through exercise and diet can help accelerate muscle growth, expedite recovery, improve physical performance, and increase overall endurance. (Cameron J. Mitchell et al., 2014)

Effects of Exercise

Protein balance describes the relationship between muscle protein breakdown and muscle protein synthesis. When the body is in protein balance, no muscle growth or wasting occurs, and the individual is considered in a healthy state of biological equilibrium/homeostasis, also known as maintenance. To stimulate muscle growth, individuals need to shake up the protein balance. Although it may seem counter-intuitive, exercise can break down muscle protein, but not more than the amount of protein the body can synthesize. (Felipe Damas, et al., 2015) The more intense the workout, the greater the muscle protein synthesis, as the muscle breakdown stimulates the repair and growth of tissues. Scientists measure intensity by the one-repetition maximum – 1-RM – meaning the maximum weight an individual can lift for one repetition. According to a research study, workout intensities of under 40% of the 1-RM will not affect muscle protein synthesis. And intensities greater than 60% will double or triple muscle protein synthesis. (P. J. Atherton, K Smith. 2012)

Food Impact

The relationship between diet and protein balance is not so straightforward. Even with increased protein intake, muscle protein synthesis occurs for a specific period. This is because the body can only utilize a certain amount of the essential amino acids it receives, with anything more being broken down and excreted by the liver. Nutritionists recommend about 1.4 to 2.0 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day for building muscle and strength. (Ralf Jäger, et al., 2017) Enough protein can be obtained by focusing on dairy, eggs, lean meats, nuts, and legumes. It is also recommended to consume enough whole grains, healthy fats, fruits, and vegetables to help the body perform and repair properly. For example, carbohydrates are necessary for muscle building as they stimulate insulin release that supports muscle cell protein absorption. (Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo, David Cameron-Smith. 2013) A study looked into response rates in men prescribed 10, 20, or 40 grams of whey protein immediately following resistance training. Researchers noted the following results: (Oliver C. Witard et al., 2014)

  • 10 grams of whey protein – No effect on muscle protein synthesis.
  • 20 grams – Increased muscle protein synthesis by 49%.
  • 40 grams – Increased the muscle protein synthesis by 56% but also caused the excessive accumulation of urea.
  • Consuming 20 grams to 40 grams of whey protein after resistance training also increased other essential amino acids associated with lean muscle growth. (Lindsay S. Macnaughton et al., 2016)
  • Whey protein is a fast-digesting protein.
  • Increased results can be obtained by consuming slower-digesting protein throughout the day.

Muscle gains vary from person to person as everyone’s body is different. Individuals considering consuming protein beyond the recommended dietary intake should consult their doctor or a registered nutritionist to understand the potential benefits and risks.


Building A Stronger Body


References

Stokes, T., Hector, A. J., Morton, R. W., McGlory, C., & Phillips, S. M. (2018). Recent Perspectives Regarding the Role of Dietary Protein for the Promotion of Muscle Hypertrophy with Resistance Exercise Training. Nutrients, 10(2), 180. doi.org/10.3390/nu10020180

Mitchell, C. J., Churchward-Venne, T. A., Parise, G., Bellamy, L., Baker, S. K., Smith, K., Atherton, P. J., & Phillips, S. M. (2014). Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men. PloS one, 9(2), e89431. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089431

Damas, F., Phillips, S., Vechin, F. C., & Ugrinowitsch, C. (2015). A review of resistance training-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and their contribution to hypertrophy. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 45(6), 801–807. doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0320-0

Atherton, P. J., & Smith, K. (2012). Muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrition and exercise. The Journal of physiology, 590(5), 1049–1057. doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2011.225003

Jäger, R., Kerksick, C. M., Campbell, B. I., Cribb, P. J., Wells, S. D., Skwiat, T. M., Purpura, M., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Ferrando, A. A., Arent, S. M., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Stout, J. R., Arciero, P. J., Ormsbee, M. J., Taylor, L. W., Wilborn, C. D., Kalman, D. S., Kreider, R. B., Willoughby, D. S., Hoffman, J. R., … Antonio, J. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14, 20. doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8

Figueiredo, V. C., & Cameron-Smith, D. (2013). Is carbohydrate needed to further stimulate muscle protein synthesis/hypertrophy following resistance exercise?. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 42. doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-10-42

Witard, O. C., Jackman, S. R., Breen, L., Smith, K., Selby, A., & Tipton, K. D. (2014). Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 99(1), 86–95. doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.055517

Macnaughton, L. S., Wardle, S. L., Witard, O. C., McGlory, C., Hamilton, D. L., Jeromson, S., Lawrence, C. E., Wallis, G. A., & Tipton, K. D. (2016). The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole-body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein. Physiological reports, 4(15), e12893. doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12893

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Professional Scope of Practice *

The information herein on "Building Muscle By Enhancing Muscle Protein Synthesis" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.

Blog Information & Scope Discussions

Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.

We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from various disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and directly or indirectly support our clinical scope of practice.*

Our office has reasonably attempted to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez, DC, or contact us at 915-850-0900.

We are here to help you and your family.

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email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

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    The information herein is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, or licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional. Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

    We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.

    Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*

    email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

    phone: 915-850-0900

    Licensed in: Texas & New Mexico*

    Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CIFM, IFMCP, ATN, CCST
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Post Disclaimers

Professional Scope of Practice *

The information herein on "Building Muscle By Enhancing Muscle Protein Synthesis" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.

Blog Information & Scope Discussions

Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.

We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from various disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and directly or indirectly support our clinical scope of practice.*

Our office has reasonably attempted to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez, DC, or contact us at 915-850-0900.

We are here to help you and your family.

Blessings

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN*, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

Licensed as a Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) in Texas & New Mexico*
Texas DC License # TX5807, New Mexico DC License # NM-DC2182

Licensed as a Registered Nurse (RN*) in Florida
Florida License RN License # RN9617241 (Control No. 3558029)
Compact Status: Multi-State License: Authorized to Practice in 40 States*
Presently Matriculated: ICHS: MSN* FNP (Family Nurse Practitioner Program)

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN* CIFM*, IFMCP*, ATN*, CCST
My Digital Business Card

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