Dr. Alex Jimenez, El Paso's Chiropractor
I hope you have enjoyed our blog posts on various health, nutritional and injury related topics. Please don't hesitate in calling us or myself if you have questions when the need to seek care arises. Call the office or myself. Office 915-850-0900 - Cell 915-540-8444 Great Regards. Dr. J

Functional Neurology: Chronic Excitotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases Part 2

When compared to other central nervous system (CNS) health issues, chronic neurodegenerative diseases can be far more complicated. Foremostly, because the compromised mitochondrial function has been demonstrated in many neurodegenerative diseases, the resulting problems in energy sources are not as severe as the energy collapse in ischemic stroke. Therefore, if excitotoxicity contributes to neurodegeneration, a different time of chronic excitotoxicity needs to be assumed. In the following article, we will outline what is known about the pathways that may cause excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. We will specifically discuss that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) as fundamental examples with sufficiently validated animal models in research studies.  

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

 

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the main causes of dementia among older adults in the United States. Neuropathologically, AD is characterized as neurodegeneration with extracellular senile plaques made up of β amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles of aggregated tau, which initially appear in the hippocampus than then spread as the health issue progresses. Prominent microglial cell activation can also be associated with AD. Hereditary types of AD occur due to mutations in the Aβ precursor protein, AβPP, or in the presenilins, which are part of the multi-protein complex involved in Aβ generation. The pathophysiology of AD is complicated and a variety of pathways are included in the synaptic and the cellular degeneration in AD, such as abnormalities in signaling pathways through glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta or mitogen-activated protein kinases, cell cycle re-entry, oxidative stress, or decreased transport of trophic factors and adrenal dysregulation. However, evidence suggests that L-glutamate dysregulation plays a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease.  

 

Research studies demonstrated that primary neurons from transgenic mice overexpressing mutant presenilin are far more sensitive to excitotoxic stimulation in vitro. In vitro, aggregated Aβ increases both NMDA and kainate receptor-mediated L-glutamate toxicity, perhaps by interrupting neuronal calcium homeostasis. Others have demonstrated that Aβ can increase neuronal excitability by changing the capacity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition to decrease NMDA receptor-mediated pathways. Soluble Aβ oligomers were demonstrated to cause L-glutamate release from astrocytes resulting in dendritic spine loss through over-activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Moreover, extracellular L-glutamate concentrations were demonstrated to increase in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD, in which a 3-month treatment with the NMDA receptor inhibitor ultimately affected synapse loss. However, further research studies are still required.  

 

Numerous mouse research studies have demonstrated the consequences of AD-like pathology on EAAT expression and/or function. In acute hippocampal slice preparations, Aβ was shown to interrupt the clearance of synaptically released L-glutamate by diminishing membrane insertion of EAAT2, a result perhaps mediated by oxidative stress. In aged AβPP23 mice, research studies revealed the downregulation of EAAT2 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, which in the frontal cortex was associated with an increase in xCT expression. These changes were associated with a strong tendency toward improved extracellular L-glutamate amounts as measured by microdialysis. In triple transgenic AD mice expressing the amyloid precursor protein mutations K670N and M671L, the presenilin 1 mutation M146V and the tau P301L mutation, a strong and age-dependent decrease of EAAT2 expression was demonstrated. Restoration of EAAT2 activity in the AD mice following treatment with all the β-lactam antibiotic Cef was associated with a decrease in cognitive impairment and reduced tau pathology. In human AD brains, decreased expression of EAAT2 protein and a decrease in EAAT action was determined. However,  this outcome measure could not be replicated by other researchers. On the transcriptome level, research studies discovered exon-skipping splice variations of EAAT2 which reduce glutamate transport activity to be upregulated in human AD brains. From the CSF, several groups demonstrated an increase in glutamate concentrations in AD patients where other groups demonstrated absolutely no change or even diminished levels of L-glutamate associated with Alzheimer’s disease.  

 

In vitro, Aβ causes L-glutamate discharge from primary microglia through the upregulation of program x−c. Others discovered that it also triggered L-glutamate release from astrocytes through the activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Additionally, xCT, the specific subunit of system x−c is upregulated at the region of senile plaques, possibly in microglial cells, in Thy1-APP751 mice (TgAPP) expressing human APP bearing the Swedish (S: KM595/596NL) and London (L: V6421) mutations after Aβ injection in the hippocampus. Semiquantitative immunoblot evaluations revealed an upregulation of xCT protein expression in the frontal cortex in elderly AβPP23 mice compared to wild-type controls.  

 

Postmortem research studies show that KYN metabolism affects AD elevated concentrations of KYNA while also discovered in the basal ganglia of both AD sufferers. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, research studies demonstrated immunoreactivity for both IDO and QUIN upregulated in AD brains, particularly in the vicinity of plaques. Aβ causes IDO expression in human primary macrophages and microglia. Systemic inhibition of KMO ultimately increases brain KYNA levels and ameliorated the phenotype of a mouse model of AD, indicating an upregulation of KYNA may be an endogenous protective reaction, including the IDO inhibitor, coptisine, decreased microglial, astrocytic activation and cognitive impairment in AD mice.  

 

Taken together, along with many other harmful changes, there is evidence for chronic excitotoxicity in AD which can be driven by numerous variables, including the central sensitization of both NMDA receptors, a decrease in L-glutamate and L-aspartate reuptake capacity and an increase in glutamate release through system x−c, as shown in Figure 4. Although the KYN pathway seems to be upregulated in AD, no specific conclusions can be drawn regarding glutamatergic neurotransmission from the upregulation of the two QUIN which was neurotoxic and neuroprotective KYNA.  

 

Figure 4 Potential Mechanisms of Excitotoxicity in AD | El Paso, TX Chiropractor   El Paso Chiropractor Dr. Alex Jimenez

In many research studies, evidence and outcome measures have demonstrated that glutamate dysregulation and excitotoxicity in many neurological diseases, including AD, HD, and ALS, ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and a variery of symptoms associated with the health issues. The purpose of the following article is to discuss and demonstrate the role that glutamate dysregulation and excitotoxicity plays on neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms for excitotoxicity are different for every health issue. – Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight – Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

 


 

Metabolic Assessment Form

 

The following Metabolic Assessment Form can be filled out and presented to Dr. Alex Jimenez. Symptom groups listed on this form are not intended to be utilized as a diagnosis of any type of disease, condition, or any other type of health issue.  

 


 

In the article above, we outlined what is known about the pathways which may cause excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. We also discussed that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) as fundamental examples with sufficiently validated animal models in research studies. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .  

 

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez  

 

References  

 

  1. Lewerenz, Jan, and Pamela Maher. “Chronic Glutamate Toxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases-What Is the Evidence?” Frontiers in Neuroscience, Frontiers Media S.A., 16 Dec. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4679930/.

 


 

Additional Topic Discussion: Chronic Pain

 

Sudden pain is a natural response of the nervous system which helps to demonstrate possible injury. By way of instance, pain signals travel from an injured region through the nerves and spinal cord to the brain. Pain is generally less severe as the injury heals, however, chronic pain is different than the average type of pain. With chronic pain, the human body will continue sending pain signals to the brain, regardless if the injury has healed. Chronic pain can last for several weeks to even several years. Chronic pain can tremendously affect a patient’s mobility and it can reduce flexibility, strength, and endurance.

 

 


 

Neural Zoomer Plus for Neurological Disease

 

Neural Zoomer Plus | El Paso, TX Chiropractor

 

Dr. Alex Jimenez utilizes a series of tests to help evaluate neurological diseases. The Neural ZoomerTM Plus is an array of neurological autoantibodies which offers specific antibody-to-antigen recognition. The Vibrant Neural ZoomerTM Plus is designed to assess an individual’s reactivity to 48 neurological antigens with connections to a variety of neurologically related diseases. The Vibrant Neural ZoomerTM Plus aims to reduce neurological conditions by empowering patients and physicians with a vital resource for early risk detection and an enhanced focus on personalized primary prevention.  

 

Formulas for Methylation Support

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

 

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

 

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

 

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

 

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

xymogen el paso, tx

 

For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download  

 

* All of the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

 


 

 

Trauma Specialist Testimonies and Case Studies

Why Patients Choose Accidents Specialist to Treat Injuries
By Dr. Alexander Jimenez
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  1. 1 Chiropractic Care on Whiplash | El Paso, Tx Chiropractic Care on Whiplash | El Paso, Tx 02:15
  2. 2 Car accident Injury Rehabilitation | El Paso, Tx Car accident Injury Rehabilitation | El Paso, Tx 02:19
  3. 3 *CAR ACCIDENTS* Chiropractor | El Paso, Tx (2019) *CAR ACCIDENTS* Chiropractor | El Paso, Tx (2019) 02:35
  4. 4 Recommended El Paso, TX Chiropractor Recommended El Paso, TX Chiropractor 03:43
  5. 5 Severe Back Pain Chiropractic Treatment El Paso, TX Severe Back Pain Chiropractic Treatment El Paso, TX 04:09
  6. 6 *CHRONIC* Pain Chiropractic Care | El Paso, Tx (2019) *CHRONIC* Pain Chiropractic Care | El Paso, Tx (2019) 02:38
  7. 7 *Car Accident Injury* Chiropractic Solution  |  El Paso, TX (2019) *Car Accident Injury* Chiropractic Solution | El Paso, TX (2019) 02:25
  8. 8 Chronic Pain Chiropractor | El Paso, Tx (2019) Chronic Pain Chiropractor | El Paso, Tx (2019) 02:07
  9. 9 Chiropractic Help on Car Accidents | El Paso, Tx Chiropractic Help on Car Accidents | El Paso, Tx 02:27
  10. 10 *Car Accident Injuries* Treatment  |  El Paso, TX (2019) *Car Accident Injuries* Treatment | El Paso, TX (2019) 02:18
  11. 11 Why Chiropractor for Auto Injuries? | El Paso, Tx Why Chiropractor for Auto Injuries? | El Paso, Tx 02:30
  12. 12 *Neck* Pain Chiropractic Care | El Paso, Tx (2019) *Neck* Pain Chiropractic Care | El Paso, Tx (2019) 02:59
  13. 13 Personal Injury Chiropractic Care | El Paso, Tx (2019) Personal Injury Chiropractic Care | El Paso, Tx (2019) 02:16
  14. 14 Most Effective Chiropractor | El Paso, Tx (2019) Most Effective Chiropractor | El Paso, Tx (2019) 03:16
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  16. 16 Top Chiropractor Near Me | El Paso, Tx (Best) Top Chiropractor Near Me | El Paso, Tx (Best) 02:29
  17. 17 Chronic Body Pain Recovery | El Paso, Tx Chronic Body Pain Recovery | El Paso, Tx 01:57
  18. 18 Chiropractic Pain Relief | El Paso, Tx Chiropractic Pain Relief | El Paso, Tx 01:56
  19. 19 Quiropractico Recomendado | El Paso, Tx Quiropractico Recomendado | El Paso, Tx 02:11
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  21. 21 El Paso, TX Shoulder Pain Chiropractic Treatment El Paso, TX Shoulder Pain Chiropractic Treatment 02:52
  22. 22 El Paso, TX Lower Back Pain Chiropractor Treatment El Paso, TX Lower Back Pain Chiropractor Treatment 05:51
  23. 23 El Paso, TX Chiropractic Treatment for Car Accidents El Paso, TX Chiropractic Treatment for Car Accidents 02:37
  24. 24 El Paso, TX 18 Wheeler Accident Chiropractic Treatment El Paso, TX 18 Wheeler Accident Chiropractic Treatment 02:23
  25. 25 Chiropractic Neck Pain Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractic Neck Pain Treatment El Paso, TX 02:14
  26. 26 El Paso, TX Chiropractor 79936 El Paso, TX Chiropractor 79936 02:00
  27. 27 Sciatica Pain Treatment in El Paso, TX Chiropractic Care Sciatica Pain Treatment in El Paso, TX Chiropractic Care 01:56
  28. 28 El Paso, TX Chiropractic Care For Auto Accidents El Paso, TX Chiropractic Care For Auto Accidents 03:28
  29. 29 El Paso, TX Chiropractic Care Neck Pain Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractic Care Neck Pain Treatment 04:47
  30. 30 El Paso, TX Chiropractor Auto Accident Injuries El Paso, TX Chiropractor Auto Accident Injuries 07:00
  31. 31 El Paso, TX Chiropractor New Patient Intake Form El Paso, TX Chiropractor New Patient Intake Form 02:05
  32. 32 Whiplash Chiropractic Massage Therapy El Paso, TX Whiplash Chiropractic Massage Therapy El Paso, TX 01:55
  33. 33 El Paso, TX Cervical Pain Treatment Chiropractic Care El Paso, TX Cervical Pain Treatment Chiropractic Care 05:08
  34. 34 18 Wheeler Accident Pain Treatment Chiropractor El Paso, TX 18 Wheeler Accident Pain Treatment Chiropractor El Paso, TX 02:23
  35. 35 Shoulder Pain Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor Shoulder Pain Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor 02:49
  36. 36 Back Pain Management El Paso, TX Chiropractor Back Pain Management El Paso, TX Chiropractor 05:51
  37. 37 Car Accident Injury Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor Car Accident Injury Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor 02:36
  38. 38 Auto Accident Injury Treatment El Paso, TX Auto Accident Injury Treatment El Paso, TX 02:15
  39. 39 Neck Pain Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor Neck Pain Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor 02:15
  40. 40 Slip And Fall Injury Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor Slip And Fall Injury Treatment El Paso, TX Chiropractor 01:55
  41. 41 *CHIROPRACTOR* The Most Recommended | El Paso, Tx (2019) *CHIROPRACTOR* The Most Recommended | El Paso, Tx (2019) 02:19
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PUSH-as-Rx ®™ Beyond Rehabilitation For All - No Matter The Age

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Our Purpose & Passions: I am a Doctor of Chiropractic specializing in progressive, cutting-edge therapies and functional rehabilitation procedures focused on clinical physiology, total health, practical strength training, and complete conditioning. We focus on restoring normal body functions after neck, back, spinal and soft tissue injuries.

We use Specialized Chiropractic Protocols, Wellness Programs, Functional & Integrative Nutrition, Agility & Mobility Fitness Training and Rehabilitation Systems for all ages.

As an extension to effective rehabilitation, we too offer our patients, disabled veterans, athletes, young and elder a diverse portfolio of strength equipment, high-performance exercises and advanced agility treatment options. We have teamed up with the cities premier doctors, therapist and trainers to provide high-level competitive athletes the possibilities to push themselves to their highest abilities within our facilities.

We’ve been blessed to use our methods with thousands of El Pasoans over the last three decades allowing us to restore our patients’ health and fitness while implementing researched non-surgical methods and functional wellness programs.

Our programs are natural and use the body’s ability to achieve specific measured goals, rather than introducing harmful chemicals, controversial hormone replacement, un-wanted surgeries, or addictive drugs. We want you to live a functional life that is fulfilled with more energy, a positive attitude, better sleep, and less pain. Our goal is to ultimately empower our patients to maintain the healthiest way of living.

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